“Time is definitely the fire we burn in.” Despite the fact that we might struggle to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance turns into a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The inner environment of Air separation equipment can be a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe inside the eons in the future.
For many who aim to discover truths concerning the workings of the cell, holding back the floodgates of your time is a concern of significant proportions. Scientists are generally thinking about very specific cell properties that transpire at critical junctions inside the life of a cell. Holding these processes from increasing while their properties may be exploited is akin to the trouble of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as you solution to the issue of your slow burn. By reduction of the temperatures of samples on the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature where all metabolic activity concerns a halt, scientists have the ability to seclude moments in time, returning over and over to investigate that instant throughout history.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has become an essential industry that makes customized products for almost every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the current market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in each and every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such numerous types of products to choose from understanding of the ones that are best may elude the normal consumer. To be able to provide a review of the major producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will likely be profiled on this page.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those stuff that the majority of people never think of until they quit working. Created to run for a long time without interruption in service, lab freezers are the quiet sentinels in the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists stay away from the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory during the day if it did. A career’s amount of samples could be lost in a single afternoon– many years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the ground. Even though this type of scenario looms ominously from the periphery of each researcher’s consciousness, few are prepared during the day when it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers took great pains to ensure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is the only company which utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in the refrigerators. Even though the gas industry has used this technique for a long time, MMR Technologies was the first company to patent the technology and adapt it for tiny, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact that an assortment of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is also capable to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, along with the cool gas passes back up the warmth exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. A number of liquid-vapor separators may be incorporated from the cycle to ensure the expansion of the liquid could be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 can be a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is ideal for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The device allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and because it provides an inside power supply it can be used to the transportation of samples from storage facility to look into laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the need for controlled temperature ramping.
“As a user you need to are aware of the minimum temperature and how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling ensures that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained through the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures right down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages can be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are offered in order to protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits much of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality on this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to work longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples underneath the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also relies on a special combination of azeotropic gases which can be non-flammable and permit on-site recycling. Moreover, a built in timer cycles the reduced stage compressor every twenty four hours, turning it away so that the capillary tubing is going to be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. has a long tradition of creating ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. Actually, with 4 decades of expertise under its belt, So-Low is among the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the business. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase away from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was the first to work with Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler together with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of eco friendly refrigerants, So-Low also has developed a revolutionary compressor that is certainly designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens right down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the usual cylindrical containers. Every one of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, plus a storage system adjusts to allow for a range of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates long term from everyday storage.
Revco is one of the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers using more than half a century of expertise in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to only -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be found in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions towards the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it has a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil in the evaporating coils.
Sanyo continues to be manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers in excess of twenty years, beginning with its manufacture of the very first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the creation of the first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the initial manufacturer to provide a complete range of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of many largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers on the market today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The expression dewar, originally applied to double walled glass vacuum flasks, is currently applied to a variety of insulated vessels made for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or sit down on tabletops where samples can be easily accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures as long as one year without having to be regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The common thermal wall consists of an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to this type of extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to acquire. Many of these companies as well as their items are reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for numerous types of applications. Of course, animal breeders are only a small percentage of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large a part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the quickest-growing part of the market for the company’s products.
MVE was the first company to produce biological freezers effective at maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the total collection of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suited to cells that can be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers will also be a good choice for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate in a liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags which can be prone to break open.
Quantum Technology can be a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the United States and Germany. Its product line includes anything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
According to Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has were able to remain competitive is by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is simply because they can be custom designed.
One of Quantum Technology’s most in-demand products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in numerous countries beyond The United States and Europe, the fee for purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is among the factors why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained within the system. The helium from this refrigerator is reliquified to use repeatedly.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, delivers a Thermo-Flask type of products that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types can be purchased with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and all these models is available with a 24-month warranty. Other special highlights of the Thermo-Flask line of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples kept in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by a variety of companies throughout the United States. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and present features for example super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and also have capacities up to 6,000 vials. Together with a few of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks with a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, along with an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates contact with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes various traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are produced from borosilicate glass included in a protective mesh, and every wide-mouth model includes a vented polyethylene stopper to minimize evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can even be jacketed in aluminum casing for additional safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suitable for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of 2 weeks. Most of these units come equipped with a small-evaporation stopper, a completely shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Choices for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to hold large volumes of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Every one of these units is complemented by its very own inventory control system, which was designed to maximize the amount of vials which can be safely arranged in a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials may be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are among the mostly used and least considered implements within the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out 1 day. Then it is time to look shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the first in which concerns the matter of if they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials propose that material is trapped within the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of your internally threaded sort debate that externally threaded vials are definitely more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although studies have been conducted so as to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and the debate continues.
An additional consideration that comes into account when buying cryogenic tubes is the material that they are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they be more difficult to warm which could negatively affect the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can also be contaminated with releasing fluids in the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove with all the care and attention, and a few brands like Axygen are looking at new polished molds that do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but is also subject to fracture because of microchannels which might form from the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, as well as violent explosions. Plastic vials are also vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the potential of explosion is just not as great.
Gasketing has also been an issue of some contention in this industry. Many cryovials include a washer that keeps the inner pressure from the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas inside the tube is sufficient force cells and fluid throughout the lids of numerous non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is usually preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is also used, it has a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a challenge which was demonstrated once the “O” rings around the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, offers a large collection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures only -190°C. Created for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that comprise of a dual lip and a silicon washer. A special ridge on each cap makes handling easier, bringing about one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in conjunction with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® make of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be purchased in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also offers a wide range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, which may be used with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested in the vacuum chamber to be sure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently designed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for usage in lipid fractionation studies. This is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding highlights of this tube is it is completely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include an array of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that are silicone gasketed and guaranteed for use inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and therefore are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, as the System 100 vials are sure to be leakproof within a microcentrifuge as much as 8,000 g and during shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase could lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for up to every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it provides developed an extensive catalog of products for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be bought in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. These are typically best suited for that preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which can be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored having a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a series of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come designed with a number of features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are offered with selected styles. All Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be made with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without any mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added limited to the request of your customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel that are typical constituents of dyes. All of the company’s vials was created to snap closed inside a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system includes a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that this microtube is aligned inside the centrifuge rotor to become re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. posseses an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are appropriate for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colors. An individual has a choice of choosing from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material from which they may be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures along with temperatures and pressures in a autoclave. Among the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus on in developing its collection of products is the necessity for cryogenic vials that have reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be found in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes can be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems certainly are a critical component of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they might undergo changes that can make them difficult to keep trace. Labels could become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes may be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular methods for containing samples is the canister and cane. Employing this technique, several vials are enclosed within a long aluminum shaft which is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility in the system reduces exposure time for you to ambient temperatures resulting in less evaporation from the freezer, plus decreases the researcher’s being exposed to potentially harmful cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are made to optimize the level of storage area afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is actually a cardboard or stainless-steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems allow the user to organize as many as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International specializes in making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Intended for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours to put just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in a few models to allow for tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that contain storage racks for holding up to 267 microtubes. These drawers can be installed in every upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise some plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are keyed in order to avoid misalignment and offer temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless retainer systems suitable for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for easy retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes to have an increasing number of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, LNG filling Station has responded with boxes and racks that are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids in order to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. Actually, most of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless and can include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be purchased as individual units or as complete racks to be used in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
More than likely, the cryogenic products one buys today could be the same ones that might be used for many years. An order made today may work for ten years. In effect, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not only buying products by themselves, they can be buying for his or her successors. The individual should think about what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated on account of improper storage. A little money which had been saved at first by scrimping on vials or freezers might not appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. In spite of the safeguards internal to the majority of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products a top priority. Appointing a lasting position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety in the laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the ideal way to assure the integrity of those samples.